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倒装句
作者:罗琴    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2006-9-25    
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            Inversion

.概念:将句中的谓语或谓语的一部分放在主语之前构成的句式叫倒装句。

.倒装句的基本结构

倒装的基本结构有两种:部分倒装和全倒装

一.   部分倒装——情态动词、助动词、havebe等动词位于主语之前。

1.never seldom hardly scarcely barely rarely little not nowhere by no means in no way at no time neither (nor).等含有否定意义的副词,及短语放在句首时,主谓语序部分倒装。

e.g. Never shall I forget the day when I knew I suffered from cancer.

Neither will theory do without practice; nor will practice do without theory.

    Not will I tell you the secret.

2.  no sooner had sb. +pp+than  “一——就——”,构成

hardly had sb. +pp+whem        部分倒装

e.g.Hardly had I left the house when the telephone rang.

3.在以not noly开头的句子中,“not only”后的句子要倒装,“but also”后面的句子不倒装

e.g.Not only he read the book, but also he remember what he had read.

4. “ not until ”后的主句要构成部分倒装。

e.g.Not until he was four years old, could  he dress himself.

5.only修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时,构成部分倒装。

e.g.Only in this way, can you learn English well.

    Only now, does he realize his mistake.

Only when the war was over in 1949, was he able to get back home.

Note:①“only”只修饰状语时,句子才倒装;修饰名词不倒装。

e. g. Only John knows the answer.

only”修饰的状语从句时,从句不倒装

6.虚拟倒装:去掉“if”,把“had ,should ,were”放到主语之前,构成部分倒装.

e.g.Were I a child, I would have no responsibilities.

   Had he asked me, I should have gone.

   Should it rain tomorrow, the crops would be saved.

7.so(用于肯定句)、nor /neither(用于否定句)放在句首,表示前面所说的情况也适用于或不适用于另一人。

e.g.He comes from South Afric, so does she.

   I can’t speak Japanese, nor/neither can he.

Note: ①当主语一致时,表强调,不倒装

e.g.--That's Isabel, look!

  --So it is.

当前面是以and连接的两个并列的分句时,后面用so it is /was with sb.

e.g. I’m a student, and I can speak English.  So it is with him. 

③当前句是含有否定意义的句子时,仍用nor /neither引导

e.g. He is never late, nor am I.

   I can hardly speak French, neither can she.

8.So”放在句首修饰副词和形容词时,句子构成部分倒装

e.g. So loudly did he speak that he was heard.

二.全倒装——将谓语动词放在主语之前。

1. There be(exist, live, come, etc.)句型

e.g there is a box and some books on the desk.

Note: 遵循就近原则。

2. 表示地点的介词或副词短语位于句首,句子构成全倒装。谓语动词一般为be,lie,stand,sit.

e.g. Between the two buildings stands a tall tree.

    South of the city lies a steel factory.

3.在以out, away, then there, hereaway, up, down, off, back, over等副词开头,主语又是名词的句子中,主谓语序全倒装。

 e.g.There goes the bell!

    In rushed the children.

Note:主语是代词时不能倒装

e.g. There he comes.

Out he ran.

4.直接引语的全部或一部分位于句首时,引述动词与其主语全部倒装。

e.g. “Help!” shouted the boy.

    “I've had enough ,”said John. e.g. e.g.

Note:引述动词后面带宾语则不倒装

e.g. Why?” the teacher asked him.

Both, sir.” he answered proudly.

②代词作主语主谓也不倒装

e.g. “You are,”I answered.

三.其他

1.引导让步状语从句时

predicative (表语)

adverbial   (状语)  +as(though) +subject +…

verb        (动词)  

e.g. Much as I like it, 1 will not buy it.

Try as she might, she failed.

Child as he was, he had to make a living.

Note:如果表语是单数名词,应省去“a” or “an”

 e.g. Hero as he is, he has some shortcomings.

2.有时为了平衡句子,句式也会倒装。

e.g.Gone are the days when humans live in harmony with nature..

   They reached a farmhouse, in front of which sat a small boy.

Practise

I.Choose the best answers:

  1. If you don't go there,________.

     A. so won't I              B. nor do I

     C. neither shall I         D. so don't I

  2.--He has passed the exam.

    --_____________.

     A. So have I               B. So I have

     C. I have so               D. So did I

  3. Hardly         the bus station when the bus started.

     A. has she arrived at      B. had reached she

     C. did she arrive at       D. had she reached

  4.          it rain, the crops would be saved.

     A. Were to                 B. Would

     C. Should                  D. Could

  5. Listen!­______________.

     A. There the bell goes

     B. The bell goes there

C. The bell goes there

D. There goes the bell

6. By no means _________ it.

A.     I will give up           B. will I give up

     C. will give up I           D. won’t I give up

7. Not until 7:00________.

     A. he got up                B. he didn't get up

     C. did he get up            D. didn't he get up

8.          the film,1 would have told you something about it.

     A. Have I seen              B. Had I seen

     C. Should I see             D. I had seen

9. After that we never saw her again, nor         from her.

     A. did we hear               B. we heard

     C. had we heard              D. we have heard

10.He is unhappy,________.

A. so is she                B. neither is she

C. so isn't he              D. nor isn't she

11.--Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother?

      --I don't know,

      A. nor don't I care         B. nor do 1 care

      C. I don't care, neither    D. 1 don't care also

12. Not until I began to work __ how much time I had wasted.

   A. didn't 1 realize            B. did I realize

   C. I didn't realize            D. I realized

13. Little         about his own safety, though he was in great danger himself.

    A. does he care               B. did he care

    C. he cares                    D. he cared

  14. Not only         polluted but __________ crowded.

    A. was tile city; were the streets

    B. the city was; were the streets

    C. was the city; the streets were

    D. the city was; the streets were

  15. So        that no fish can live in it.

A. the lake is shallow         B. shallow the lake is

    C. shallow is the lake         D. is the lake shallow

  16. “It was careless of you to have left your clothes outside all night.”“My God!____________________”

    A. So did I                    B. So I did

    C. So were you                 D. So did you

  17.--David has made great progress recently.

    --           , and______________

     A. So he has; so you have

     B. So he has; so have you

     C. So has he; so have you

     D. So has he; so you have

  18. Only by practising a few hours every day______ be able to master the language.

     A. you can                    B. can you

     C. you will                   D. will you

  19. Not until all the fish died in the river ________ how serious the pollution    was.

     A. did the villagers realize

     B. the villagers realize

     C. the villagers did realize

     D. didn't the villagers realize

  20.        , he doesn't study well.

     A. As he is clever

       B. He is as clever

       C. Clever as he is

       D. As clever he is
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